Byeong-Young Cho


Book Chapters

Cho, B-Y., Woodward, L., & Afflerbach, P. (in press). Qualitative approaches to the verbal protocol analysis of strategic processing. In D. Dinsmore, L. Fryer, & M. Parkinson (Eds.), Handbook of strategies and strategic processing: Conceptualization, intervention, measurement, and analysis. New York, NY: Routledge.

In this chapter, we examine the verbal protocol methodology and related qualitative analyses and their role in constructing detailed accounts of strategic processing in reading. To that end, we draw from diverse studies in which protocol data is used to catalog and describe the readers’ strategies. In the sections that follow, we first argue for the importance of investigating strategic processing in reading. Then, we examine the scientific merits of qualitative verbal protocol analysis in examining such strategic processing. Finally, we discuss critical issues in verbal protocol analysis and suggest possible means of addressing the issues to undertake rigorous and situated analyses of strategic processing in reading.

Afflerbach, P., Hurt, M., & Cho, B-Y. (in press). Reading comprehension strategy instruction. In Dinsmore, D., Fryer, L., & Parkinson, M. (Eds.), Handbook of strategies and strategic processing: Conceptualization, intervention, and measurement and analysis. New York, NY: Routledge.

This chapter focuses on reading comprehension strategies instruction. We begin the chapter by noting that a lack of consistency in conceptualizing strategies poses immediate challenges to effective instruction. Then, we provide an overview of the evolution of reading comprehension strategy research and related instruction research, especially in relation to theoretical models of reading. We next consider contemporary concerns with strategy instruction, in conjunction with the pressing need for students’ enhanced reading comprehension strategies. We propose that instruction that focuses on students’ reading comprehension strategies (a form of procedural knowledge) must be supported by related declarative knowledge, conditional knowledge, epistemic knowledge and disciplinary knowledge. We conclude the chapter with ideas about future directions for both reading comprehension strategy research and instruction.

Cho, B-Y. (in press). Examining the process of reading in media text environments: A methodological perspective. In E. Moje, P. Afflerbach, P. Enciso, & N. K. Lesaux (Eds.), Handbook of reading research (vol. 5). New York, NY: Routledge.

This chapter focuses on methods of inquiry into processes of reading across media. The discussion conceives of media as both forms or channels of communication, and the system and structure of communication through which texts of varying quality, mostly online, are presented as potential sources of information to readers. The chapter concerns reading in a broad sense, drawing on the research literature that seeks to understand and describe reading by examining how readers access, learn from, and reason about diverse texts in media. My goal is to review process-oriented research methods of examining media reading and thereby offer a précis of ideas that may be useful for specifying and integrating various inquiry methods with differing merits and limits.

Cho, B-Y., Kucan, L., & Rainey, E. C. (in press). Students' perspective learning in a multisource task environment. In A. List, P. Van Meter, D. Lombadi, & P. Kendeou (Eds.), Handbook of Learning from Multiple Representations and Perspectives. New York, NY: Routledge.

We have been working with eighth graders in an urban charter school in Pittsburgh to engage them in disciplinary literacy learning in history. This chapter presents a series of vignettes foregrounding classroom discourse that reveals how students acknowledged, compared, and co-constructed perspectives while examining multiple sources to conclude a unit about local history. We begin with an overview of the notion of perspective as it relates to student learning and specifically student learning of disciplinary literacy in history. We then will describe the unit and the multisource task that engage students in perspective learning in history. We conclude with a discussion about possible considerations for designing classroom environments that support students’ perspective learning.

Song, K., & Cho, B-Y. (2019). Translanguaging as a metacognitive tool for navigating and learning in the online environment. In D. Pyles, R. Rish, H. Pleasants, & J. Warner (Eds.), Negotiating place and space through digital literacies. Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing.

In this chapter, we challenge the common perception of English centrism in the online world, acknowledging the increasingly diverse situations of digital literacy practices in a today’s multilingual environment. Our confrontation with such linguistic status-quo is motivated by the idea of multilingual online users’ translanguaging practices. Informed by resource approaches to the pedagogy of language and literacy, we view translanguaging as a metacognitive tool that is useful and valuable to learners in a multilingual online setting. To describe the nature of translanguaging situated in online reading, we use bilingual students’ think-aloud data from our empirical study. The verbal excerpts represent the ways in which the learners use their two languages as they identify and learn from multilingual texts online. We close the chapter with a discussion of scientific and pedagogical implications in relation to translanguaging as a tool for learning, multilingual digital media environments, and relevant literacy practices.

Afflerbach, P., Cho, B-Y., Kim, J., & Crassas, M. E. (2018). Best practices in reading assessment. In L. M. Morrow & L. B. Gambrell (Eds.), Best practices in literacy instruction (6th ed., pp. 309-333.). New York, NY: Guilford.
This chapter focuses on classroom-based reading assessments that have positive influence on the teaching and learning of reading. We consider best practices in reading assessment in relation to the contexts in which teaching and learning happen, and where assessment is proposed, mandated, developed, conducted, interpreted, and used. In many states and school districts, there is a hyperfocus on high-stakes summative testing. This may result in lack of attention to classroom-based reading assessment. The most pressing challenges to best practice in classroom assessment of reading include the following: a) assessing both reading processes and reading products, b) assessing reading skills and strategies and the assessment of how students use what they understood from reading, c) assessing reading from multiple sources including the Internet/hypertext, d) assessing the cognitive, affective, and conative factors that influence students’ reading development, e) using both formative assessment and summative assessment in a productive and complementary manner, f) assuring that reading assessment contributes to students’ developing ability to self-assess, g) providing professional development opportunities that help teachers develop expertise in reading assessment. More
Cho, B-Y., Afflerbach, P., & Han, H. (2018). Strategic processing in accessing, comprehending, and using multiple sources. In J. Braasch, I. Braten, & M. McCrudden (Eds.), Handbook of multiple source use (pp. 133-150). London, UK: Routledge.

Our chapter focuses on readers' strategic processing with multiple sources in online text environments. The growth of the Internet brings an unprecedented number of new and hybrid sources of online information. These sources populate a vast, uncontrolled space of information, and often they are not vetted for accuracy or reliability. Accordingly, successful readers of multiple sources online must be able to decide what to read, how to access and integrate information, and when to use the sources of information. To construct knowledge in this challenging environment, strategic readers use and manage their acts of reading while navigating the complex space of multiple sources online to achieve their goals. These readers use three general classes of strategies that we describe as constructive-integrative, critical-analytical, and metacognitive-reflective. The chaining together of these strategies responding to the ever-changing reading landscape characterizes successful online readers reading multiple texts. Reader responsivity to text sources and text content, tied to readers’ goals and the monitoring of progress towards goals, drives strategy choice.

Cho, B.-Y., & Afflerbach, P. (2017). An evolving perspective of constructively responsive reading comprehension strategies in multilayered digital text environments. In S. Israel (Ed.), Handbook of research on reading comprehension (2nd ed., pp. 109-134). New York, NY: Guilford Press.

In the first edition of the Handbook, we reviewed research on reading comprehension strategies within the framework of constructively responsive reading (Pressley & Afflerbach, 1995). The result was a compendium of the strategies that accomplished readers use while reading traditional and new forms of text. Also included were several strategies used by readers to construct meaning from multiple texts and nonlinear texts. In the interim between the first and second editions of this handbook, there has burgeoning research on strategies used in the reading of multiple, non-traditional texts. Thus, our aim in this second edition is to integrate the recent research with our evolving perspective of constructively responsive reading into an updated account of the strategies, especially those required for successful reading in complex, digital-text environments. With this goal in mind, we begin the chapter with a definition of constructively responsive comprehension strategies, and a brief overview of the theoretical and practical significance of continuing research to explicate the strategies. Next, we describe comprehension strategies of online reading as readers work to create coherence and meaning from digital texts. We then update the account of constructively responsive reading strategies as active readers use to choose, interconnect, and learn from nonlinear, multiple digital texts. We conclude by proposing future directions for research of constructively responsive reading comprehension strategies that can advance theories and practices in reading.

Reynolds, R., Cho, B.-Y., & Hutchison, A. (2015). Cognitive processing and reading comprehension: Issues of theory, causality, and individual differences. In P. Afflerbach (Ed.), Handbook of individual differences in reading: Reader, text, and context. (pp. 364-376). New York: Routledge.

The topic of individual differences in reading performance has a long and robust history in the reading literatures of psychology, education, linguistics, and special education. Much of this research concerns how variations in children's skills in basic reading processes afferct overall reading performance. In contrast, less research has been done that explains exactly how more proficient readers use the cognitive resources they have conserved via automatic word identification to facilitate the processes involved in reading comprehension. A major purpose of this chapter is to add to the discussion of individual differences in reading ability by investigating whether variations in readers' selective cognitive resource allocation during reading comprehension affect reading performance. A second chapter purpose is to trace the theoretical and methodological insights that have moved understanding of the processes involved in reading toward a more integrated explanation of the interplay among basic and higher level cognitive processes.

Afflerbach, P., Cho, B.-Y., Crassas, M. E. & Kim, J.-Y. (2015). Best practices in reading assessment: Working toward a balanced approach. In L. B. Gambrell & L. M. Morrow (Eds.), Best practices in literacy instruction (5th ed., pp. 315-339). New York: Guilford.

The chapter focuses on classroom-based reading assessment, which we believe is well suited to enhance teaching and learning in the area of the Common Core State Standards. Consideration of best practice in reading assessment must account for the contexts (sometimes contentious contexts) in which teaching and learning take place, and where reading assessment are proposed, mandated, developed, conducted, interpreted, and used. The current context of reading assessment is marked by a series of imbalances. A significant portion of this imbalance is attributable to the attention given to high-stakes testing and a resultant lack of focus on classroom-based reading assessment that might help change the teachign and elarning of reading. Correcting these imbalances can provide one basis for superior teaching and learning, while ignoring them may diminish the achievements of teachers and their students.

Cho, B.-Y., & Woodward, L. (2014). New demands of reading in the mobile Internet age. In C. Penny, D. McConatha, J. Schugar, & D. Bolton (Eds.), Mobile pedagogy and perspectives on teaching and learning (pp. 187-204). Hershey, PA: IGI Global.

Changing contexts of literacy in the mobile Internet age demand that readers use higher-order strategies to identify, understand, and evaluate numerous web sources. Sophisticated use of these strategies is a hallmark of competent readers, who are able to make informed decisions about their own reading in the unknown, untested information space on the Internet. The focus of this chapter is on these new demands of reading in Internet settings. The chapter begins by describing changing views of texts and evolving understandings of reading in the digital world. It then describes the core reading strategies that contribute to successful reading in Internet settings, including text location, meaning construction, critical evaluation, and metacognitive monitoring. Conclusions are drawn regarding considerations for designing instruction that fosters students’ higher-order reading strategies in the mobile Internet age.

Afflerbach, P., Cho, B.-Y., & Kim, J-Y. (2014). Inaccuracy and reading in multiple text and Internet/hypertext environments. In D. Rapp & J. Braasch (Eds.), Processing inaccurate information: Theoretical and applied perspectives from cognitive science and the educational sciences (pp. 403-424). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

We have several goals for this paper. We begin with a description of the situated nature of inaccuracy, considering it in relation to models of text comprehension and strategic reading. We propose that the cooperative principle (Grice, 1975) is helpful in accounting for the context-dependent nature of inaccuracy and how the dynamics of reader, text, goal, and situation contribute to the determination that information is inaccurate. We provide three scenarios involving multiple text and Internet reading to illustrate the situated nature of inaccuracy. Then, we synthesize existing research to describe the strategies used by successful readers for determining when text is inaccurate during Internet readings of multiple texts. Next, we use think-aloud protocol data to examine how accomplished high school students, reading in Internet environments, determine accuracy in texts on controversial topics. We conclude with consideration of the importance of the concept of inaccurate information for both reading comprehension theory and reading instruction practice. What is inaccurate information in text? In this chapter, we equate accuracy with truth--an author who strives for accuracy has a goal of providing the reader with truthful information.

Cho, B.-Y. (2011). Authentic reading assessment (실제적 독서 평가). In Noh, M. (Ed.), Understanding reading education: The concept, teaching, and assessment of reading. (pp. 289-320). Seoul, Korea: Hanuri Books.
Afflerbach, P., Kim, J-Y., Crassas, M. E., & Cho, B.-Y. (2011). Best practices in literacy assessment. In L. M. Morrow & L. B. Gambrell (Eds.), Best practices in literacy instruction (4th ed., pp. 319-340). New York: Guilford.
Afflerbach, P., Cho, B.-Y., & Kim, J-Y. (2011). The assessment of higher order thinking in reading. In G. Schraw & D. R. Robinson (Eds.), Assessment of higher order thinking skills (pp. 185-217). Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing.
Afflerbach, P., & Cho, B.-Y. (2011). The classroom assessment of reading. In M. J. Kamil, P. D. Pearson, E. B. Moje, & P. P. Afflerbach (Eds.), Handbook of reading research (Vol. 4, pp. 487-514). New York: Routledge.
Afflerbach, P., Cho, B.-Y., Clark, S., & Kim, J-Y. (2010). Classroom assessment of literacy. In D. Wyse, R. Andrews, & J. Hoffman (Eds.), The Routledge international handbook of English, language and literacy teaching (pp. 401-412). London: Routledge.
Afflerbach, P., & Cho, B.-Y. (2010). Determining and describing reading strategies: Internet and traditional forms of reading. In W. Schneider & H. Waters (Eds.), Metacognition, strategy use, and instruction (pp. 201-225). New York: Guilford.
Afflerbach, P., & Cho, B.-Y. (2009). Identifying and describing constructively responsive comprehension strategies in new and traditional forms of reading. In S. E. Israel & G. G. Duffy (Eds.), Handbook of research on reading comprehension (pp. 69-90). New York: Routledge.
Cho, B.-Y. (2008). Exploring and describing Internet reading strategies (인터넷 독서 전략의 탐색과 기술). In Noh, M. & Park, Y. (Eds.), Literacy education (pp. 567-592). Seoul, Korea: Hankukmunwhasa.


Kucan, L., Rainey, E., & Cho, B-Y. (2019). Engaging middle school students in disciplinary literacy through culturally relevant historical inquiry. Journal of Adolescent and Adult Literacy. DOI: 10.1002/jaal.940.
The authors share design principles from a middle school social studies unit that explored questions of local history and engaged students in extended work with complex texts. The unit involved constructing a problem space for students to explore multiple historical texts. Within that problem space, students had opportunities to develop focal literacy practices of history, consider cultural connections to the subject under study, and evaluate current local policy through a justice lens that was informed by their deepened understandings of historical events. More
Lee, K. M., Park, S., Jang, B. G., & Cho, B-Y. (2019). Multidimensional approaches to examining digital literacies in the contemporary global society. Media and Communication, 7(2), 36-46.
Literacy scholars have offered compelling theories about and methods for understanding the digital literacy practices of youth. However, little work has explored the possibility of an approach that would demonstrate how different perspectives on literacies might intersect and interconnect in order to better describe the multifaceted nature of youth digital literacies. In this conceptual article, we adopt the idea of theoretical triangulation in interpretive inquiry and explore how multiple perspectives can jointly contribute to constructing a nuanced description of young people’s literacies in today’s digitally mediated global world. For this purpose, we first suggest a triangulation framework that integrates sociocultural, affective, and cognitive perspectives on digital literacies, focusing on recent developments in these perspectives. We then use an example of discourse data from a globally connected online affinity space and demonstrate how our multidimensional framework can lead to complex analysis and interpretation of the data. In particular, we describe the substance of one specific case of youth digital literacies from each of the three perspectives on literacy, which in turn converge to provide a complex account of such literacy practices. In conclusion, we discuss the promise and limitations of our integrative approach to studying the digital literacy practices of youth. More
This case study describes how culturally relevant pedagogy can be used in disciplinary rigorous ways in an urban middle school history classroom. The focus is on a unit about the Johnstown Flood of 1889 which provided a setting for teaching about the event as well as the historical thinking practices of contextualizing, sourcing, and corroborating. The teacher supported students' cultural and academic competence for learning both historical content and historical thinking about that content by capitalizing on their funds of knowledge, making use of accessible cultural referents, and sharing personal narratives. More
Cho, B-Y., Han, H., & Kucan, L. (2018). An exploratory study of middle school learners' historical reading in an Internet environment. Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 31(7), 1525-1549. DOI: 10.1007/s11145-018-9847-4

We investigated seventh-grade students’ use of Internet sources as they engaged in an online inquiry about a historical event. The participating students read on the Internet individually in order to better understand the given historical event, navigating the Internet and examining different online texts they identified as useful sources for learning. The primary data sources were the think-aloud protocols that the students generated during the task. These verbal data were analyzed to reveal the students’ strategic processing of multiple Internet sources for the purpose of historical learning. The students’ verbal reporting data indicate that a shortage of prior knowledge and incorrect associations of the knowledge activated in reading are not helpful for learning important ideas from historical online reading. The data also suggest that engaging in the processes of finding textual evidence from more than one source of information and using that evidence to take sensemaking one step further may help a student learn more accurately. Based on the results, we discuss implications for teaching and learning to help students become more historically informed strategic readers in a digital age.

Song, K., & Cho, B-Y. (2018). Exploring bilingual adolescents' translanguaging strategies during online reading. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism.
Bilingual adolescents actively participate in online literacy practices on the multilingual Internet. Yet, research has paid less attention to these readers' use of their linguistic knowledge and skills as they choose and learn from multiple sources written in their two languages on the Internet. Using think-aloud protocols, this study examined how middle school Korean-English bilingual students accessed their two languages during online reading. The findings demonstrated that these readers strategically used their two languages to facilitate their actions for information searching and learning from sources. Notably, their translanguaging strategies were engaged at a metacognitive level as a function of self-monitoring. Their use of translanguaging appeared to depend on individuals' decision making and preference as each participant used translanguaging in different frequencies and patterns. This study provides pedagogical implications that developing bilingual learners' access to both of their two languages during online reading can enhance their learning from multilingual texts. More
Cho, B.-Y., Woodward, L., & Li, D. (2018). Epistemic processing when adolescents read online: A verbal protocol analysis of more and less successful online readers. Reading Research Quarterly, 53(2), 197-221. DOI: 10.1002/rrq.190

This study examines how the beliefs that adolescent readers hold about knowledge and knowing are activated during online reading. The research questions center on the pattern of these readers’ epistemic processes through which more or less productive learning occurs. High school students performed a critical online reading task on a controversial topic; 10 more successful readers and 10 less successful readers were then selected based upon their topic knowledge gain and the quality of questions they constructed in response to their online reading. The epistemic processes of these two groups’ 20 readers were inferred from their concurrent verbal reports, which were then compared to observe processing similarities and differences between the groups. Verbal reports were coded and classified qualitatively until concrete types of epistemic processing were recognized; the coded data were then quantified for statistical group comparisons to identify and interpret emerging patterns. The results indicate that more successful online readers tended to engage in higher-order epistemic processes when judging information sources, monitoring their knowing processes, and regulating their alternative knowledge-seeking actions, whereas the epistemic actions of their less successful counterparts were more often disconnected and tended to function at a surface level. Cross-categorical associations were found between epistemic judgment, monitoring, and regulation, suggesting that epistemic processes operate interactively. Implications of the study’s results are discussed in relation to literacy research and practice.

Li, D., Cho, B-Y., & Beecher, C. (2017). Examining the reading of information text in 4th-grade classroom and its relationship with students' reading performance. Reading Psychology, 39(1), 1-28. DOI: 10.1080/02702711.2017.1361493.
Being proficient in independently reading and writing complex informational text has become a need for college and career success. While there is a great deal of agreement on the importance of the reading of informational text in early grades and teachers are encouraged to increase the amount of the reading of informational text in early grades, few quantitative studies have been conducted to examine if the frequency of reading informational text is relevant to student reading achievement. This study aims to investigate the relationship of reading informational text and students' reading performance in 4th grade based on PIRLS 2011 data through multilevel modeling. More
Kucan, L., Cho, B-Y., & Han, H. (2017). Introducing the historical thinking practice of contextualizing to middle school students. The Social Studies, 108(5), 210-218. DOI: 10.1080/00377996.2017.1359483
This article describes the design of a social studies unit about the Johnstown Flood of 1889 with a particular emphasis on how specific unit resources engaged middle school students in learning about the geographical and historical context of Johnstown, Pennsylvania. We also report on how the resources supported the teaching and learning of the historical thinking practice of contextualizing.


Cho, B-Y., Woodward, L., Li, D., & Barlow, E. (2017). Examining adolescents' strategic processing during online reading with a question-generating task. American Educational Research Journal, 54(4) 691-724. DOI: 10.3102/0002831217701694.

Forty-three high-school students participated in an online reading task to generate a critical question on a controversial topic. Participants’ concurrent verbal reports of strategy use (i.e., information location, meaning making, source evaluation, self-monitoring) and their reading outcome (i.e., the generated question) were evaluated with scoring rubrics. Path analysis indicated that strategic meaning making coordinated with self-monitoring and source evaluation positively influenced the quality of the generated questions, whereas information-locating strategies alone contributed little to the participants’ question generation. Further, source evaluation played a positive role when readers monitored and regulated their strategies for information location and meaning making. The findings on the interplay of metacognitive, critical, and intertextual strategies in online reading are discussed with regard to research and practice.

The present study explores how different literacy sponsors such as parents, teachers, peers, and Internet users would influence elementary-school students’ digital literacy practices. The study was conducted with Grades 3-6 students (n=10,111) in Korea, using the items about literacy sponsor activities (i.e., valuing, modeling, and control) and the time spent for digital literacy activities. The results indicated three patterns. First, the elementary students in this study perceived that parental control is the most influential in their digital literacy activities. However, the parental control did not predict the amount of time spent for digital literacy activities by the students. Second, the respondents reported that peer value was the second most important factor that affects their digital literacy activities. This perception tended to increase as they go up to higher school grades. Last, the respondents perceived that anonymous online users did not significantly affect their digital literacy activities and that the online user factor did not predict the amount of time spent for digital literacy activities by the respondents. The results imply that in addition to traditional literacy sponsors such as parents, peer groups and their value system should be considered in understanding students' digital literacy activities. More
Seo, S., Cho, B.-Y., Kim, J., Kim, J. Y., Koh, G., Oh, E., & Ok, H. (2016). Korean elementary students' digital literacy attitude. Korean Elementary Literacy Education, 61, 151-186.

This study was to explore implication for digital literacy education by analyzing Korean elementary students’ Digital Literacy Attitude (DLA) based on the large-scale survey data collected from a representative sample of 3rd to 6th-grade elementary students in Korea. Statistical analysis indicated that respondents’ DLA scores increase in a statistically significant manner as they get older (Grade). In addition, a statistically significant difference in DLA scores was found between metropolitan areas and mid-sized and rural area (Area). However, no statistically significant difference in DLA scores was found between male and female students (Gender). The study’s result is important to note because elementary students’ digital literacy attitude patterns found in this study, as compared to print literacy attitudes described in prior studies, may challenge common assumptions about students’ attitude toward literacy practices. Educational implication and future research direction were discussed.

Ok, H., Cho, B.-Y., Kim, J., Kim, J. Y., Kim, H., Koh, G., Oh, E., & Seo, S. (2016). A study of developing and validating an assessment of digital literacy attitudes (디지털 리터러시 태도 평가 도구 개발 및 타당화 연구). Korean Language Education, 152, 251-283.

Substantial progress has been made to describe the cognitive and social processes involved in digital literacy practices. However, few studies have examined non-cognitive factors that may significantly affect students’ engagement in digital literacy practices. This article describes a research project for developing and validating a self-report instrument to assess children’s digital literacy attitudes as emotional and behavioral tendencies that influence and intervene their engaged (or disengaged) digital literacy practices. Informed by research in digital literacy and motivation for learning, we considered five factors that may account for multiple dimensions of the construct of digital literacy attitudes. These included (a) value (e.g., task, medium), (b) self-efficacy (e.g., ability, success), (c) emotion (e.g., feeling, preference), (d) participation (e.g., engagement, interaction), and (e) self-regulation (e.g., control, reflection). The digital literacy attitude assessment instrument was created, built upon the five-factor model, and multiple sets of items were revised and updated through pre-validation procedures including cognitive interviews and expert surveys. Finally, with the data collected from 1,609 third- and sixth-grade students in Korea, the result of confirmatory factor analyses indicated substantial internal consistency among 33 items in the final version of the instrument designed to assess these five factors. Based upon the results, we discuss critical issues in conceptualizing and assessing children’s attitudes toward digital literacy practices and how the study’s results contribute to research and practice at a crucial time in schools where cognitive-only curricula and assessments are pervasive.

Afflerbach, P., Cho, B.-Y., & Kim, J.-Y. (2015). Conceptualizing and assessing higher order thinking in reading. Theory Into Practice, 54(3), 203-212.

Students engage in higher-order thinking as they read complex texts and perform complex reading-related tasks. However, the most consequential assessments, high-stakes tests, are currently limited in providing information about students’ higher-order thinking. In this article, we describe higher-order thinking in relation to reading. We provide a framework for understanding higher-order thinking in reading, in relation to relevant theories and research in reading, and standards and assessment initiatives. We conclude with the considerations in assessments of higher-order thinking in reading that can help teachers and students work toward attainment of the Common Core State Standards.

Cho, B.-Y., & Afflerbach, P. (2015). Reading on the Internet: Realizing and constructing potential texts. Journal of Adolescent and Adult Literacy, 58(6), 504-517.

Successful Internet reading requires making strategic decisions about what texts to read and a sequence for reading them, all in accordance with readers’ goals. In this paper, we describe the process of realizing and constructing potential texts as an important and critical part of successful Internet reading and use verbal report data to examine such strategic actions by readers in the complex environments of the Internet. We focus on Amalie (pseudonym), a participant in a study of adolescents’ Internet reading strategy use. Amalie's verbal reports describe representative cognitive and metacognitive processes that strategic high-school readers use as they negotiate the Internet to locate, choose, and use multiple sources. We conclude with a consideration of classroom implications in the era of Common Core State Standards for helping students become accomplished Internet readers.


The purpose of this paper is to explore the problem of inaccuracy in reading that often emerges in Internet text environments and to describe an aspect of critical reading required in such digital literacy contexts. WE view inaccuracy as a situated concept which should be defined within a complex coordination of the factors related to reader, text, writer, message, and context of reading. In this article, we provide the scenarios of the reading situations in wihch a reader is forced to cope with and respond to the problem of inaccuracy in Internet settings, using the cooperative principle. We review relevant theories of reading comprehension, from the perspective of inaccuracy, including discourse processing, multiple-document comprehension, and constructively responsive reading. We close by interpreting the verbal report data produced by highly-skilled adolescent readers as they attempted to straegically read on the Internet. The analysis of the verbal data will provide one clue to understanding and describing the nature of critical reading strategies required for Internet reading.

Cho, B.-Y., & Woodward, L. (2014). An examination of two pre-service secondary English teachers identifying Internet sources as classroom texts. Literacy Research Association Yearbook, 63, 308-325.

We situate our study as a preliminary attempt to build an understanding of preservice teachers' identification of classroom texts using the Internet, which can be used for helping teachers working in 21st century literacy contexts. In this study, we focus on two preservice secondary English teachers who participated in a larger study of teachers' Internet text selection. We examine the verbal reports that these preservice teachers generated while selecting Internet sources for a given lesson, and describe how their skills, knowledge, and beliefs may influence their decisions about digital sources as potential classroom texts.

Cho, B.-Y. (2014). Competent adolescent readers' use of Internet reading strategies: A think-aloud study. Cognition and Instruction, 32(3), 253-289.

The purpose of this study was to investigate the type, pattern, and complexity of Internet reading strategies used by seven accomplished high school readers. Individual participants performed an academic Internet reading task with the goal of developing critical questions about their chosen controversial topic. Strategies for Internet reading were analyzed from the perspective of constructively responsive reading, both qualitatively and quantitatively, using participant-generated verbal reports complemented by recordings of their computer screens. The data described the nature and sequence of reading strategies that participants used to construct meaning, and the interplay of those multiple strategies in Internet settings. The results demonstrated that the participants’ Internet reading involved the iteration and modification of traditional print-based reading strategies (e.g., meaning-making, self-monitoring, information evaluation) and also the use of strategies characteristic of Internet settings (e.g., text location). Implications of the study's findings on Internet reading strategy use for theory and research are discussed.


There is a growing interest in the Common Core State Standards among researchers and educators in Korea, for their increased attention to the future curriculum standards for Korean language. This study analyzes the core reading competencies that the CCSS anchor standards represent, based on the state-of-the-art research in reading. Five core reading skills are identified: close reading, digital-text reading, multiple-text reading, disciplinary reading, and complex-text reading. The result suggests that while the Core Standards reflect the importance of text in reading and central themes in literacy research (e.g., new literacies, disciplinary literacies), the accouns of those five core skills do not fully honor the complexities of reading that research has explicated in teh past decades. Notably, the Standards have a lack of consideration in reader factors, such as prior knowledge, metaognition, motivation, and development, while heavily focusing on text-based anlaytical skills which may not necessary help readers' engagement in reading. A consequence is that the CCSS foreground reading as a text-driven cognitive enterprise and are silent about affective, social, and developmental competencies that are essential for student growth. Implications are discussed, in relation to the promises and limitations of the CCSS when Korean educators interpre the CCSS to envision their future Korean language standards.

Cho, B.-Y. (2013). Adolescents' constructively responsive reading strategy use in a critical Internet reading task. Reading Research Quarterly, 48(4), 329-332.

The Internet is central to understanding literacies in the 21st century, and explication of reading strategies situated in Internet settings contributes to both our understanding of reading and our support of students in the Internet age. The purpose of this study was to examine the complexity of Internet reading strategies used by seven accomplished high school readers. Individual participants read on the Internet, with the goal of developing critical questions about their chosen contemporary controversial topic. Internet reading strategies were analyzed using participants' verbal reports, triangulated with complementary data (e.g., computer screen recordings). The data describe the nature and sequence of readers' strategies categorized into (a) realizing and constructing potential texts, (b) identifying and learning information, (c) evaluating and sourcing texts, and (d) monitoring and managing reading. Results demonstrate the role that these strategies play in constructing meaning from Internet texts, as well as the interactive patterns of strategy use in both open and closed Internet settings.

Afflerbach, P., Cho, B.-Y., Kim, J-Y., Crassas, M. E., & Doyle, B. (2013). Reading: What else matters besides strategies and skills? The Reading Teacher, 66(6), 440-448. doi: 10.1002/TRTR.1146.

How can we best contribute to our students’ reading development and achievement? What are the hallmarks of successful, independent student readers? An examination of reading curricula, reading assessment, and related Federal education policy reveals the ongoing emphasis on the cognitive strategies and skills of reading. The teaching and learning of the “big 5” of No Child Left Behind, phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, and comprehension, are considered the hallmark of effective reading programs. The Common Core State Standards continue the focus on the cognitive aspects of reading. While strategies and skills are central to reading achievement, they are but one aspect of elementary students’ reading development. In this article, we examine other important influences on this development. We focus on metacognition, engagement and motivation, epistemic beliefs, and self-efficacy, and we describe how they can contribute to students’ reading success.


Technical Reports

Kim, Y.-R., & Cho, B.-Y. (2011). A CURRV-based analysis of the National Achievement Test in Korean Language Arts. Korean Institute of Curriculum and Evaluation Technical Report RRE 2011-14.


Cho, B.-Y. (2011). Adolescents' constructively responsive reading strategy use in a critical Internet reading task. Unpublished Dissertation. University of Maryland.


Cho, B.-Y., Kim, S., Cho, J., Seo, S., & Kim, J. (Trans.) (2009). 독서 평가의 이해와 사용 (Original work: Afflerbach, P. (2007). Understanding and using reading assessment: K-12). Hankukmunwhasa: Seoul, Korea.
Byeong-Young Cho


University of Pittsburgh
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