Christopher E. Kline

Research Focus:

Dr. Kline's research focuses on three central topics: (1) the use of physical activity as a nonpharmacologic/behavioral treatment for disturbed sleep and its health consequences; (2) how poor sleep impacts exercise behavior; and (3) how behavioral interventions such as exercise may reduce cardiometabolic disease risk through improved sleep. Dr. Kline also has a long-standing interest in studying the impact of sleep and circadian rhythms on athletic performance, including how sleep may be utilized to optimize performance. He utilizes a wide variety of measurement techniques to assess sleep, including self-report questionnaire, diary, actigraphy, home-based portable monitoring, and laboratory-based polysomnography, and has addressed his research questions using a number of different approaches including laboratory-based randomized controlled trials, archival analyses of randomized trials and epidemiologic datasets, and observational surveys. For more information on Dr. Kline's research and publications, visit his Google Scholar and ResearchGate pages.

Current Research:

Dr. Kline's research is currently supported by three grants from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute of the NIH:

  • A Career Development Award in which he is studying the subclinical cardiovascular risk profile of the insomnia/short sleep phenotype and examining whether an augmented behavioral intervention would be feasible for this phenotype (K23HL118318);
  • A small grant that supplements the Career Development Award by studying the subclinical cardiovascular risk profile of adults with isolated short sleep (but no insomnia) and isolated insomnia (but 6+ hr sleep duration) (R01HL148357);
  • An ancillary study that adds sleep assessment to Dr. Bethany Barone Gibbs' RESET BP clinical trial, allowing us to examine the impact of sedentary behavior reduction on sleep and whether poor sleep blunts the cardiometabolic health benefits of sedentary behavior reduction (R01HL147610).

In addition, Dr. Kline has funding from the University of Pittsburgh to address whether acute exercise impacts obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) severity and examine whether evening exercise reduces OSA severity to a greater extent than morning exercise in comparison with a sedentary control condition.

To learn more about any of these studies, please contact Dr. Kline.


Dr. Kline is looking to accept a PhD student or postdoc with research interests in the bidirectional relationship between exercise and sleep for a Fall 2020 start. Please contact Dr. Kline for additional information about the research group and the application process.

If you are an undergraduate or MS student at the University of Pittsburgh who is interested in joining the group as a volunteer research assistant, please contact Dr. Kline. The minimum commitment expected is 5-10 hours per week for at least 2 semesters. Students will gain hands-on experience at all stages of the research process, including sleep assessment methodology (e.g., actigraphy, polysomnography).

School Affiliations

Recent Grants

NHLBI Clinical Ancillary Study: Reducing sedentary behavior to improve sleep: an ancillary study to the RESET BP clinical trial (R01 HL147610; 04/2019-02/2023)
Small Grant Program for NHLBI K01/K08/K23 Recipients: Disentangling subclinical cardiovascular risk associated with insomnia, short sleep duration, and their combination (R03 HL148357; 08/2019-07/2021)
University of Pittsburgh Central Research Development Fund (CRDF) Small Grant: Exercise and obstructive sleep apnea: Examination of the nocturnal rostral fluid shift as a mechanism of effect (07/2017-06/2020)
NIH Mentored Patient-Oriented Career Development Award: A novel risk factor for cardiovascular disease: The insomnia-short sleep phenotype (K23 HL118318; 01/2014 - 12/2019)

Recent Publications

Kroshus E, Wagner J, Wyrick D, Athey A, Bell L, Benjamin H, Grandner M, Kline CE, Mohler J, Prichard JR, Watson N, Hainline B. Wake up call for collegiate athlete sleep: narrative review and consensus recommendations from the NCAA Interassociation Task Force on Sleep and Wellness. Br J Sports Med 2019;53(12):713-736. PMID: 31097460.
Rosso AC, Wilson OWA, Papalia Z, Duffey M, Kline CE, Bopp M. Frequent restful sleep is associated with the absence of depressive symptoms and higher grade point average among college students. Sleep Health (in press). PMID: 32247737.
Bowman MA, Brindle RC, Joffe H, Kline CE, Buysse DJ, Appelhans BM, Kravitz HM, Matthews KA, Neal-Perry GS, Krafty RT, Hall MH. Multidimensional sleep health is not cross-sectionally or longitudinally associated with adiposity in the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation. Sleep Health (in press).
Torres-Castro R, Otto-Yanez M, Resqueti VR, Roque i Figuls M, Kline CE, Fregonezi GAF, Vilaro J. Weight loss intervention through lifestyle modification or pharmacotherapy for obstructive sleep apnoea in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev (in press). Art. No. CD013548.
Wilckens KA, Kline CE, Bowman MA, Brindle RC, Cribbet MR, Thayer JF, Hall MH. Does objectively-assessed sleep moderate the association between history of major depressive disorder and task-switching? J Affect Disord 2020;265:216-223. PMID: 32090744.