Billions of dollars are spent each year in the United States on initiatives such as Head Start, Title I, No Child Left Behind, and other interventions and remedial support services to improve the academic achievement of children in poverty. In the extant literature, however, relatively little is known about the every day classroom learning experiences of children from economically disadvantaged households. The current objectives of the study are to focus on child characteristics as well as key parenting and instructional practices that most directly enhance children’s early reading, mathematics, and vocabulary skills. In collaboration with Dr. Elizabeth Votruba-Drzal in the Dept. of Pscyhology, we will employ two large, multi-site, longitudinal datasets that are renowned for breadth and depth in classroom, family, and child measures: the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study’s Kindergarten Cohort (ECLS-K) and the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (NICHD SECCYD).